HomeScienceNeuropathologic and molecular aspects of a canine distemper epizootic in red foxes...

Neuropathologic and molecular aspects of a canine distemper epizootic in red foxes in Germany

[ad_1]

  • Appel, M. J. & Gillespie, J. H. Canine Distemper Virus 1–96 (Springer, 1972).

    Book 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Arruda, B., Shen, H., Zheng, Y. & Li, G. Novel morbillivirus as putative cause of fetal death and encephalitis among swine. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 27, 1858–1866. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2707.203971 (2021).

    CAS 
    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Lee, B. et al. Zoonotic potential of a novel bat morbillivirus. Res. Sq. https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-926789/v1 (2021).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Rendon-Marin, S., Da-Fontoura-Budaszewski, R., Canal, C. W. & Ruiz-Saenz, J. Tropism and molecular pathogenesis of canine distemper virus. Virol. J. 16, 1. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12985-019-1136-6 (2019).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Jo, W. K. et al. The canine morbillivirus strain associated with an epizootic in caspian seals provides new insights into the evolutionary history of this virus. Viruses 11, 894. https://doi.org/10.3390/v11100894 (2019).

    CAS 
    Article 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Piewbang, C., Radtanakatikanon, A., Puenpa, J., Poovorawan, Y. & Techangamsuwan, S. Genetic and evolutionary analysis of a new Asia-4 lineage and naturally recombinant canine distemper virus strains from Thailand. Sci. Rep. 9, 3198. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-39413-w (2019).

    ADS 
    CAS 
    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Bhatt, M. et al. Phylogenetic analysis of haemagglutinin gene deciphering a new genetically distinct lineage of canine distemper virus circulating among domestic dogs in India. Transbound. Emerg. Dis. 66, 1252–1267. https://doi.org/10.1111/tbed.13142 (2019).

    CAS 
    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Wang, R. et al. A new canine distemper virus lineage identified from red pandas in China. Transbound. Emerg. Dis. https://doi.org/10.1111/tbed.14370 (2021).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Greene, C. E. & Vandevelde, M. in Infectious Diseases of the Dog and Cat (ed Craig, E. G.) 25–42 (Elsevier/Saunders, 2012).

  • Tatsuo, H., Ono, N. & Yanagi, Y. Morbilliviruses use signaling lymphocyte activation molecules (CD150) as cellular receptors. J. Virol. 75, 5842–5850. https://doi.org/10.1128/jvi.75.13.5842-5850.2001 (2001).

    CAS 
    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Delpeut, S., Noyce, R. S. & Richardson, C. D. The tumor-associated marker, PVRL4 (nectin-4), is the epithelial receptor for morbilliviruses. Viruses 6, 2268–2286. https://doi.org/10.3390/v6062268 (2014).

    CAS 
    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Higgins, R., Krakowka, S., Metzler, A. & Koestner, A. Experimental canine distemper encephalomyelitis in neonatal gnotobiotic dogs. Acta Neuropathol. 57, 287–295 (1982).

    CAS 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Axthelm, M. & Krakowka, S. Canine distemper virus: The early blood-brain barrier lesion. Acta Neuropathol. 75, 27–33 (1987).

    CAS 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Summers, B., Greisen, H. A. & Appel, M. Early events in canine distemper demyelinating encephalomyelitis. Acta Neuropathol. 46, 1–10 (1979).

    CAS 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Rudd, P. A., Cattaneo, R. & Von Messling, V. Canine distemper virus uses both the anterograde and the hematogenous pathway for neuroinvasion. J. Virol. 80, 9361 (2006).

    CAS 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Martinez-Gutierrez, M. & Ruiz-Saenz, J. Diversity of susceptible hosts in canine distemper virus infection: A systematic review and data synthesis. BMC Vet. Res. 12, 78. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12917-016-0702-z (2016).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Kennedy, S. et al. Mass die-Off of Caspian seals caused by canine distemper virus. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 6, 637–639. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid0606.000613 (2000).

    CAS 
    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Grachev, M. A. et al. Distemper virus in Baikal seals. Nature 338, 209–209. https://doi.org/10.1038/338209a0 (1989).

    ADS 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Origgi, F. C., Sattler, U., Pilo, P. & Waldvogel, A. S. Fatal combined infection with canine distemper virus and orthopoxvirus in a group of Asian marmots (Marmota caudata). Vet. Pathol. 50, 914–920. https://doi.org/10.1177/0300985813476060 (2013).

    CAS 
    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Gordon, C. H. et al. Canine distemper in endangered Ethiopian wolves. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 21, 824–832. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2105.141920 (2015).

    CAS 
    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Roelke-Parker, M. E. et al. A canine distemper virus epidemic in Serengeti lions (Panthera leo). Nature 379, 441–445. https://doi.org/10.1038/379441a0 (1996).

    ADS 
    CAS 
    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Gilbert, M. et al. Distemper, extinction, and vaccination of the Amur tiger. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2000153117 (2020).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Green, R. G. Distemper in the silver fox (Culpes vulpes). Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 22, 546–548. https://doi.org/10.3181/00379727-22-261 (1925).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Green, R. G. Distemper in the silver fox (Culpes vulpes). Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 23, 677–678. https://doi.org/10.3181/00379727-23-3115 (1926).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Rudolf, J. Beitrag zur Staupe beim Silberfuchs. Nerz. Waschbär. Dtsch. Tierärztl. Wschr. 30, 728–732 (1930).


    Google Scholar
     

  • Dedié, K., Christoph, H. & Martin, J. Beitrag zur Staupe bei Silberfüchsen. Arch. Exp. Vet. Med. 11, 689–706 (1957).


    Google Scholar
     

  • Hoff, G. L., Bigler, W. J., Proctor, S. J. & Stallings, L. P. Epizootic of canine distemper virus infection among urban raccoons and gray foxes. J. Wildl. Dis. 10, 423–428. https://doi.org/10.7589/0090-3558-10.4.423 (1974).

    CAS 
    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Kennedy, A. H. Neurotic distemper of foxes: The history of an outbreak of a neurotropic fox distemper among ranch raised foxes. Can. J. Comp. Med. Vet. Sci. 12, 137–140 (1948).

    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Frölich, K. et al. Epizootiological investigations of canine distemper virus in free-ranging carnivores from Germany. Vet. Microbiol. 74, 283–292. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0378-1135(00)00192-9 (2000).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Black, S. S., Austin, F. W. & McKinley, E. Isolation of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Listeria monocytogenes Serotype 4 from a Gray Fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) with Canine Distemper. J. Wildl. Dis. 32, 362–366. https://doi.org/10.7589/0090-3558-32.2.362 (1996).

    CAS 
    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Nouvellet, P. et al. Rabies and canine distemper virus epidemics in the red fox population of northern Italy (2006–2010). PLoS ONE 8, e61588. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0061588 (2013).

    ADS 
    CAS 
    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Martella, V. et al. Canine distemper epizootic among Red Foxes, Italy, 2009. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 16, 2007. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid1612.100579 (2010).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Sekulin, K. et al. Emergence of canine distemper in Bavarian wildlife associated with a specific amino acid exchange in the haemagglutinin protein. Vet. J. 187, 399–401. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2009.12.029 (2011).

    CAS 
    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Nikolin, V. M., Wibbelt, G., Michler, F. U., Wolf, P. & East, M. L. Susceptibility of carnivore hosts to strains of canine distemper virus from distinct genetic lineages. Vet. Microbiol. 156, 45–53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2011.10.009 (2012).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Zhao, J. et al. Pathogenesis of canine distemper virus in experimentally infected raccoon dogs, foxes, and minks. Antiviral Res. 122, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2015.07.007 (2015).

    CAS 
    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Pope, J. P., Miller, D. L., Riley, M. C., Anis, E. & Wilkes, R. P. Characterization of a novel Canine distemper virus causing disease in wildlife. J. Vet. Diagn. Invest. 28, 506–513. https://doi.org/10.1177/1040638716656025 (2016).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Aničić, M. et al. Morphological and immunohistochemical characteristics of spontaneous distemper infection in the brains of red foxes in Serbia. J. Comp. Pathol. 166, 142. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcpa.2018.10.135 (2019).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Woo, G. H., Jho, Y. S. & Bak, E. J. Canine distemper virus infection in fennec fox (Vulpes zerda). J. Vet. Med. Sci. 72, 1075–1079. https://doi.org/10.1292/jvms.09-0510 (2010).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Origgi, F. C. et al. Emergence of canine distemper virus strains with modified molecular signature and enhanced neuronal tropism leading to high mortality in wild carnivores. Vet. Pathol. 49, 913–929. https://doi.org/10.1177/0300985812436743 (2012).

    CAS 
    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • López-Peña, M., Quiroga, M. I., Vázquez, S. & Nieto, J. M. Detection of Canine Distemper Viral Antigen in Foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Northwestern Spain. J. Wildl. Dis. 30, 95–98 (1994).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Denzin, N., Herwig, V. & van der Grinten, E. Occurrence and geographical distribution of Canine Distemper Virus infection in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. Vet. Microbiol. 162, 214–218. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2012.08.031 (2013).

    CAS 
    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Sobrino, R., Arnal, M. C., Luco, D. F. & Gortázar, C. Prevalence of antibodies against canine distemper virus and canine parvovirus among foxes and wolves from Spain. Vet. Microbiol. 126, 251–256. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2007.06.014 (2008).

    CAS 
    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Kennedy, A. H. Neurotropic distemper of foxes part II: Paper II the symptoms observed in foxes affected with a neurotropic type of fox distemper. Can. J. Comp. Med. Vet. Sci. 12, 168–171 (1948).

    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Kennedy, A. H. Neurotropic distemper of foxes: Paper III. The macroscopic and microscopic pathology of a neurotropic type of fox distemper. Can. J. Comp. Med. Vet. Sci. 12, 203–205 (1948).

    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Vandevelde, M. & Zurbriggen, A. The neurobiology of canine distemper virus infection. Vet. Microbiol. 44, 271–280. https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-1135(95)00021-2 (1995).

    CAS 
    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Nesseler, A., Baumgärtner, W., Gaedke, K. & Zurbriggen, A. Abundant expression of viral nucleoprotein mRNA and restricted translation of the corresponding viral protein in inclusion body polioencephalitis of canine distemper. J. Comp. Pathol. 116, 291–301 (1997).

    CAS 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Baumgärtner, W. & Alldinger, S. Experimental Models of Multiple Sclerosis 871–887 (Springer, 2005).

    Book 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Nesseler, A., Baumgärtner, W., Zurbriggen, A. & Örvell, C. Restricted virus protein translation in canine distemper virus inclusion body polioencephalitis. Vet. Microbiol. 69, 23–28 (1999).

    CAS 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Lincoln, S. D., Gorham, J. R., Ott, R. L. & Hegreberg, G. A. Etiologic studies of old dog encephalitis: I. Demonstration of canine distemper viral antigen in the brain in two cases. Vet. Pathol. 8, 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1177/030098587100800101 (1971).

    CAS 
    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Hartley, W. J. A post-vaccinal inclusion body encephalitis in dogs. Vet. Pathol. 11, 301–312. https://doi.org/10.1177/030098587401100403 (1974).

    CAS 
    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Krakowka, S. & Koestner, A. Age-related susceptibility to infection with canine distemper virus in gnotobiotic dogs. J. Infect. Dis. 134, 629–632. https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/134.6.629 (1976).

    CAS 
    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Summers, B. A., Greisen, H. A. & Appel, M. J. G. Canine distemper encephalomyelitis: Variation with virus strain. J. Comp. Pathol. 94, 65–75. https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9975(84)90009-4 (1984).

    CAS 
    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Mutinelli, F., Vandevelde, M., Griot, C. & Richard, A. Astrocytic infection in canine distemper virus-induced demyelination. Acta Neuropathol. 77, 333–335 (1989).

    CAS 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Vandevelde, M., Zurbriggen, A., Higgins, R. & Palmer, D. Spread and distribution of viral antigen in nervous canine distemper. Acta Neuropathol. 67, 211–218 (1985).

    CAS 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Stein, V. M. et al. Microglial cell activation in demyelinating canine distemper lesions. J. Neuroimmunol. 153, 122–131. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jneuroim.2004.05.001 (2004).

    CAS 
    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Blakemore, W. F., Summers, B. A. & Appel, M. G. Evidence of oligodendrocyte infection and degeneration in canine distemper encephalomyelitis. Acta Neuropathol. 77, 550–553. https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00687258 (1989).

    CAS 
    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Summers, B. A. & Appel, M. Aspects of canine distemper virus and measles virus encephalomyelitis. Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol. 20, 525–534 (1994).

    CAS 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Kajita, M. et al. Canine distemper virus induces apoptosis through caspase-3 and -8 activation in vero cells. J. Vet. Med. B 53, 273–277. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0450.2006.00963.x (2006).

    CAS 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Kumagai, K., Yamaguchi, R., Uchida, K. & Tateyama, S. Lymphoid apoptosis in acute canine distemper. J. Vet. Med. Sci. 66, 175–181 (2004).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Moro, L. et al. Apoptosis in canine distemper. Arch. Virol. 148, 153–164 (2003).

    CAS 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Trebbien, R. et al. Wildlife reservoirs of canine distemper virus resulted in a major outbreak in Danish farmed mink (Neovison vison). PLoS ONE 9, e85598. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085598 (2014).

    ADS 
    CAS 
    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Yon, L. et al. Recent changes in infectious diseases in European wildlife. J. Wildl. Dis. 55, 3–43. https://doi.org/10.7589/2017-07-172 (2019).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Fukuhara, H. et al. Specificity of Morbillivirus Hemagglutinins To Recognize SLAM of different species. Viruses 11, 761. https://doi.org/10.3390/v11080761 (2019).

    CAS 
    Article 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Hashiguchi, T. et al. Structure of the measles virus hemagglutinin bound to its cellular receptor SLAM. Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. 18, 135–141. https://doi.org/10.1038/nsmb.1969 (2011).

    CAS 
    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Ke, G. M. et al. Phylodynamic analysis of the canine distemper virus hemagglutinin gene. BMC Vet. Res. 11, 164. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12917-015-0491-9 (2015).

    CAS 
    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Zipperle, L. et al. Identification of key residues in virulent canine distemper virus hemagglutinin that control CD150/SLAM-binding activity. J. Virol. 84, 9618–9624. https://doi.org/10.1128/jvi.01077-10 (2010).

    CAS 
    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Beineke, A., Puff, C., Seehusen, F. & Baumgärtner, W. Pathogenesis and immunopathology of systemic and nervous canine distemper. Vet. Immunol. Immunop. 127, 1–18. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetimm.2008.09.023 (2009).

    CAS 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Vandevelde, M. et al. Demyelination in experimental canine distemper virus infection: Immunological, pathologic, and immunohistological studies. Acta Neuropathol. 56, 285–293. https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00691260 (1982).

    CAS 
    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Gentleman, S. M., Nash, M. J., Sweeting, C. J., Graham, D. I. & Roberts, G. W. Beta-amyloid precursor protein (beta APP) as a marker for axonal injury after head injury. Neurosci0 Lett. 160, 139–144. https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-3940(93)90398-5 (1993).

    CAS 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Seehusen, F. & Baumgärtner, W. Axonal pathology and loss precede demyelination and accompany chronic lesions in a spontaneously occurring animal model of multiple sclerosis. Brain Pathol. 20, 551–559. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3639.2009.00332.x (2010).

    CAS 
    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Lempp, C. et al. New aspects of the pathogenesis of canine distemper leukoencephalitis. Viruses 6, 2571–2601. https://doi.org/10.3390/v6072571 (2014).

    CAS 
    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • McCarthy, A. J., Shaw, M.-A. & Goodman, S. J. Pathogen evolution and disease emergence in carnivores. Proc. R. Soc. B-Biol. Sci. 274, 3165–3174. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2007.0884 (2007).

    CAS 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Nikolin, V. M. et al. Antagonistic pleiotropy and fitness trade-offs reveal specialist and generalist traits in strains of canine distemper virus. PLoS ONE 7, e50955. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0050955 (2012).

    ADS 
    CAS 
    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Nikolin, V. M. et al. Canine distemper virus in the Serengeti ecosystem: Molecular adaptation to different carnivore species. Mol. Ecol. 26, 2111–2130. https://doi.org/10.1111/mec.13902 (2017).

    CAS 
    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Benetka, V., Leschnik, M., Affenzeller, N. & Möstl, K. Phylogenetic analysis of Austrian canine distemper virus strains from clinical samples from dogs and wild carnivores. Vet. Rec. 168, 377–377. https://doi.org/10.1136/vr.c6404 (2011).

    CAS 
    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Feng, N. et al. Fatal canine distemper virus infection of giant pandas in China. Sci. Rep. 6, 27518. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep27518 (2016).

    ADS 
    CAS 
    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Ohishi, K. et al. Recent host range expansion of canine distemper virus and variation in its receptor, the signaling lymphocyte activation molecule, in carnivores. J. Wildl. Dis. 50, 596–606. https://doi.org/10.7589/2013-09-228 (2014).

    CAS 
    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Demeter, Z. et al. Genetic diversity of Hungarian canine distemper virus strains. Vet. Microbiol. 122, 258–269. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2007.02.001 (2007).

    CAS 
    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Trogu, T. et al. Canine distemper outbreaks in wild carnivores in northern Italy. Viruses 13, 99. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13010099 (2021).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Li, W. et al. Genetic characterization of an isolate of canine distemper virus from a Tibetan Mastiff in China. Virus Genes 49, 45–57. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11262-014-1062-z (2014).

    CAS 
    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Iwatsuki, K. et al. Molecular and phylogenetic analyses of the haemagglutinin (H) proteins of field isolates of canine distemper virus from naturally infected dogs. J. Gen. Virol. 78(Pt 2), 373–380. https://doi.org/10.1099/0022-1317-78-2-373 (1997).

    CAS 
    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Varki, A. et al. in Essentials of glycobiology (ed Varki, A.) 537–552 (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 2017).

  • Merry, T. & Astrautsova, S. Alternative approaches to antiviral treatments: Focusing on glycosylation as a target for antiviral therapy. Biotechnol. Appl. Biochem. 56, 103–109. https://doi.org/10.1042/ba20100010 (2010).

    CAS 
    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Ortega, V., Stone, J. A., Contreras, E. M., Iorio, R. M. & Aguilar, H. C. Addicted to sugar: Roles of glycans in the order Mononegavirales. Glycobiology 29, 2–21. https://doi.org/10.1093/glycob/cwy053 (2019).

    CAS 
    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Alldinger, S., Baumgartner, W. & Orvell, C. Restricted expression of viral surface proteins in canine distemper encephalitis. Acta Neuropathol. 85, 635–645. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00334674 (1993).

    CAS 
    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Krakowka, S., Olsen, R., Confer, A., Koestner, A. & McCullough, B. Serologic response to canine distemper viral antigens in gnotobiotic dogs infected with canine distemper virus. J. Infect. Dis. 132, 384–392. https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/132.4.384 (1975).

    CAS 
    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Rima, B. K., Duffy, N., Mitchell, W. J., Summers, B. A. & Appel, M. J. Correlation between humoral immune responses and presence of virus in the CNS in dogs experimentally infected with canine distemper virus. Arch. Virol. 121, 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01316739 (1991).

    CAS 
    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Vandevelde, M. & Zurbriggen, A. Demyelination in canine distemper virus infection: A review. Acta Neuropathol. 109, 56–68. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00401-004-0958-4 (2005).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Raine, C. S. On the development of CNS lesions in natural canine distemper encephalomyelitis. J. Neurol. Sci. 30, 13–28. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-510X(76)90251-3 (1976).

    CAS 
    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Giulian, D. Ameboid microglia as effectors of inflammation in the central nervous system. J. Neurosci. Res. 18(155–171), 132–153. https://doi.org/10.1002/jnr.490180123 (1987).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Streit, W. J., Graeber, M. B. & Kreutzberg, G. W. Functional plasticity of microglia: A review. Glia 1, 301–307. https://doi.org/10.1002/glia.440010502 (1988).

    CAS 
    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Alldinger, S., Wünschmann, A., Baumgärtner, W., Voss, C. & Kremmer, E. Up-regulation of major histocompatibility complex class II antigen expression in the central nervous system of dogs with spontaneous canine distemper virus encephalitis. Acta Neuropathol. 92, 273–280 (1996).

    CAS 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Tipold, A. et al. Early T cell response in the central nervous system in canine distemper virus infection. Acta Neuropathol. 97, 45–56 (1999).

    CAS 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Gaedke, K., Zurbriggen, A. & Baumgartner, W. Lack of correlation between virus nucleoprotein and mRNA expression and the inflammatory response in demyelinating distemper encephalitis indicates a biphasic disease process. Eur. J. Vet. Pathol. 1999, 5 (1999).


    Google Scholar
     

  • Zurbriggen, A., Yamawaki, M. & Vandevelde, M. Restricted canine distemper virus infection of oligodendrocytes. Lab. Invest. 68, 277–284 (1993).

    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Müller, C. F., Fatzer, R. S., Beck, K., Vandevelde, M. & Zurbriggen, A. Studies on canine distemper virus persistence in the central nervous system. Acta Neuropathol. 89, 438–445 (1995).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Gröne, A., Alldinger, S. & Baumgärtner, W. Interleukin-1beta, -6, -12 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression in brains of dogs with canine distemper virus infection. J. Neuroimmunol. 110, 20–30. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0165-5728(00)00332-5 (2000).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Montgomery, D. L. Astrocytes: Form, functions, and roles in disease. Vet. Pathol. 31, 145–167. https://doi.org/10.1177/030098589403100201 (1994).

    CAS 
    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Higgins, R., Krakowka, S., Metzler, A. & Koestner, A. Primary demyelination in experimental canine distemper virus induced encephalomyelitis in gnotobiotic dogs. Acta Neuropathol. 58, 1–8 (1982).

    CAS 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Baumgärtner, W., Örvell, C. & Reinacher, M. Naturally occurring canine distemper virus encephalitis: Distribution and expression of viral polypeptides in nervous tissues. Acta Neuropathol. 78, 504–512 (1989).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Summers, B. A. & Appel, M. J. Demyelination in canine distemper encephalomyelitis: An ultrastructural analysis. J. Neurocytol. 16, 871–881 (1987).

    CAS 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Headley, S. A., Soares, I. C. & Graça, D. L. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-immunoreactive astrocytes in dogs infected with canine distemper virus. J. Comp. Pathol. 125, 90–97. https://doi.org/10.1053/jcpa.2001.0483 (2001).

    CAS 
    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Seehusen, F., Orlando, E. A., Wewetzer, K. & Baumgärtner, W. Vimentin-positive astrocytes in canine distemper: A target for canine distemper virus especially in chronic demyelinating lesions?. Acta Neuropathol. 114, 597–608. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00401-007-0307-5 (2007).

    CAS 
    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Bignami, A., Raju, T. & Dahl, D. Localization of vimentin, the nonspecific intermediate filament protein, in embryonal glia and in early differentiating neurons. In vivo and in vitro immunofluorescence study of the rat embryo with vimentin and neurofilament antisera. Dev. Biol. 91, 286–295. https://doi.org/10.1016/0012-1606(82)90035-5 (1982).

    CAS 
    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Schnitzer, J., Franke, W. W. & Schachner, M. Immunocytochemical demonstration of vimentin in astrocytes and ependymal cells of developing and adult mouse nervous system. J. Cell. Biol. 90, 435–447. https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.90.2.435 (1981).

    CAS 
    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Eng, L. F. & Ghirnikar, R. S. GFAP and astrogliosis. Brain Pathol. 4, 229–237. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3639.1994.tb00838.x (1994).

    CAS 
    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Frisen, J., Johansson, C. B., Torok, C., Risling, M. & Lendahl, U. Rapid, widespread, and longlasting induction of nestin contributes to the generation of glial scar tissue after CNS injury. J. Cell. Biol. 131, 453–464. https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.131.2.453 (1995).

    CAS 
    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Holley, J. E., Gveric, D., Newcombe, J., Cuzner, M. L. & Gutowski, N. J. Astrocyte characterization in the multiple sclerosis glial scar. Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol. 29, 434–444. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2990.2003.00491.x (2003).

    CAS 
    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Yamada, T., Kawamata, T., Walker, D. G. & McGeer, P. L. Vimentin immunoreactivity in normal and pathological human brain tissue. Acta Neuropathol. 84, 157–162. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00311389 (1992).

    CAS 
    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Moro, L. et al. Apoptosis in the cerebellum of dogs with distemper. J. Vet. Med. B Infect. Dis. Vet. Public Health 50, 221–225. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1439-0450.2003.00657.x (2003).

    CAS 
    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Vandevelde, M. & Kristensen, B. Observations on the distribution of canine distemper virus in the central nervous system of dogs with demyelinating encephalitis. Acta Neuropathol. 40, 233–236 (1977).

    CAS 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Gras, P. et al. Landscape structures affect risk of canine distemper in urban wildlife. Front. Ecol. Evol. 6, 1. https://doi.org/10.3389/fevo.2018.00136 (2018).

    ADS 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Beineke, A., Baumgärtner, W. & Wohlsein, P. Cross-species transmission of canine distemper virus-an update. One Health 1, 49–59. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.onehlt.2015.09.002 (2015).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Rentería-Solís, Z. et al. Canine distemper outbreak in raccoons suggests pathogen interspecies transmission amongst alien and native carnivores in urban areas from Germany. Pathogens 174, 50–59. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2014.08.034 (2014).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Vergara-Wilson, V. et al. Canine distemper outbreak by natural infection in a group of vaccinated maned wolves in captivity. Pathogens 10, 51. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10010051 (2021).

    CAS 
    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Sathya, K. C., Michael, J. K., Michael, J. A. & Karen, T. Canine distemper in a vaccinated snow leopard (Panthera uncia). J. Zoo Wildl. Med. 48, 1200–1203. https://doi.org/10.1638/2017-0074.1 (2017).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Barrett, C. A., Joyner, P. H., Anis, E., Wilkes, R. P. & Aitken-Palmer, C. Safety of and humoral immune response to the Merial Rekombitek canine distemper virus vaccine in maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus). J. Zoo Wildl. Med. 50, 972–975. https://doi.org/10.1638/2017-0159 (2020).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Geng, Y. et al. First demonstration of giant panda’s immune response to canine distemper vaccine. Dev. Comp. Immunol. 102, 103489. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dci.2019.103489 (2020).

    CAS 
    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Eschle, S. et al. Canine vaccination in Germany: A survey of owner attitudes and compliance. PLoS ONE 15, e0238371. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0238371 (2020).

    CAS 
    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Stimmer, L. et al. Viral protein expression and phenotyping of inflammatory responses in the central nervous system of phocine distemper virus-infected harbor seals (Phoca vitulina). Vet. Microbiol. 145, 23–33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2010.02.034 (2010).

    CAS 
    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Pavasutthipaisit, S. et al. CARD9 deficiency increases hippocampal injury following acute neurotropic picornavirus infection but does not affect pathogen elimination. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 22, 6982. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22136982 (2021).

    CAS 
    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     


  • [ad_2]

    Source link

    RELATED ARTICLES

    LEAVE A REPLY

    Please enter your comment!
    Please enter your name here

    Most Popular

    Recent Comments

    %d bloggers like this: